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As wolf populations rebound in the West and the Upper Midwest, it is inevitable that the animals will have to be managed in order to mitigate human–wolf conflicts. While some of this control will be done by government agents, whenever possible I believe the control efforts should be conducted by licensed hunters drawn from the public through permit lotteries or managed according to quota systems. (Such is the case in Idaho, Montana, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.) These hunts are essential for two primary reasons. 1: They give validity to the Endangered Species Act, which worked wonderfully as a tool to save wolves from extinction and restore them to a significant portion of their native range in the Lower 48. For the ESA to work, it has to be a two-way street. Once a species is saved from extinction, it should be de-listed and turned over to the states for management in accordance with their long-term wildlife management goals. If not, the public will grow suspicious of the intent of the ESA, and it will be much more difficult to get other imperiled species listed in the future. 2: As wolves recover, we will need to manage their populations in order to maintain healthy, stable herds of game animals that can support harvest by members of the American public. This is not to suggest that wolves should be handled ruthlessly by state Fish and Game agencies. Rather, they should be managed in the same careful and conservative way that we manage all of our wonderful and cherished big game species. It wouldn’t do anyone any good, particularly not state Fish and Game agencies, to put the well-being of the gray wolf in jeopardy. No one wants to see them back on the Endangered Species List.